This introductory course is an overview of financial accounting, why it is important, and how it is used by investors and creditors to make decisions. It covers the accounting information system, and the recording and reporting of business transactions with a focus on the accounting cycle, the applications of generally accepted accounting principles GAAP , the classified financial statements, and statement analysis. Other topics include issues related to asset, liability, and equity valuation; revenue and expense recognition; cash flows; internal controls; and ethics. This course is intended for students majoring in accounting or other fields related to business administration. This course is a study of how managers use accounting information in decision-making, planning, directing operations, and controlling. The course focuses on cost terms and concepts, cost behavior, cost structure, and cost-volume-profit analysis. Other topics include profit planning, standard costs, operations and capital budgeting, cost control, and accounting for costs in manufacturing organizations. Completion of or concurrent enrollment in:
Assessment. Western Civilization Essay Dissertation Research Help
Visit the Chaco Web Exhibit The type of artifacts in the collection include the full range of Chacoan material culture — prehistoric vessels, stone and bone tools, matting and sandals, ground stone tools for making corn flour, projectile points, hammers and mauls, hoes and digging sticks, corn cobs and turkey bones, and ornaments of shell, Turquoise, jet, and bone. The collection also contains a wide variety of ecofacts ecological specimens that yield information about the environment such as faunal and botanical specimens, pollen and soil samples, mineral specimens, and wood samples used for tree-ring-dating.
Highlights in the collection include: The majority of the artifacts were collected during the Chaco Project – , a multidisciplinary research program of survey and excavation. The Chaco Project began with an inventory survey of parkland that identified nearly 4, sites, two-thirds of which are prehistoric.
One of the most common methods for dating archaeological sites is by Carbon (C/ 14 C). The method was developed by physicist Willard Libby at the University of Chicago who received the Nobel.
Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare , “We speak from facts not theory”. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Flavio Biondo , an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden , conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing, describing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
First excavations[ edit ] An early photograph of Stonehenge taken July One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey — was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England. He was also ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings.
He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture, costume, and shield-shapes. These excavations began in in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos , had a big impact throughout Europe.
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Dating refers to the archaeological tool to date artefacts and sites, and to properly construct history. All methods can be classified into two basic categories: Based on a discipline of geology called stratigraphy, rock layers are used to decipher the sequence of historical geological events. Relative techniques can determine the sequence of events but not the precise date of an event, making these methods unreliable. These methods are based on calculating the date of artefacts in a more precise way using different attributes of materials.
This method includes carbon dating and thermoluminescence.
The type of artifacts in the collection include the full range of Chacoan material culture — prehistoric vessels, stone and bone tools, matting and sandals, ground stone tools for making corn flour, projectile points, hammers and mauls, hoes and digging sticks, corn cobs and turkey bones, and.
Practical and Theoretical Geoarchaeology is described as a textbook for undergraduate archaeology majors, a basic text which can act as an intermediary course in geoarchaeology. Why would an amateur or avocationalist need to read it? Because any knowledge about landforms and the precious deposits which support archaeological materials is going to help you understand why a site is located where it is, what went on at a site, and how the site was formed. I found that reading the book while sitting next to a pc was very useful.
The book seeks to be practical in its scope, to show directly how geoarchaeology is relevant to all archaeological research strategies and interpretations. The first section of the book introduces the student to regional scale geoarchaeology. We look first at defining and examining what sediments are, then stratigraphy and soil.
Once this basic level of understanding is achieved, considerable time is spent examining hydrological systems effect on landscapes:
Print Radiocarbon Dating and Archaeology Radiocarbon dating lab scientists and archaeologists should coordinate on sampling, storage and other concerns to obtain a meaningful result. The sample-context relationship must be established prior to carbon dating. The radiocarbon dating process starts with measuring Carbon , a weakly radioactive isotope of Carbon, followed by calibration of radiocarbon age results to calendar years.
History, anthropology, and archaeology are three distinct but closely related bodies of knowledge that tell man of his present by virtue of his past.
How do our methods for dating and interpreting artifacts impact our understa. The smarter way. to do assignments. ABOUT CONTACT. GET SMART HELP. Please note that this is just a preview of a school assignment posted on our website by one of our clients.
They do it by comparing the ratio of an unstable isotope, carbon , to the normal, stable carbon All living things have about the same level of carbon , but when they die it begins to decay at uniform rate—the half-life is about 5, years, and you can use this knowledge to date objects back about 60, years. However, radiocarbon dating is hardly the only method that creative archaeologists and paleontologists have at their disposal for estimating ages and sorting out the past.
Some are plainly obvious, like the clockwork rings of many old trees. But there are plenty of strange and expected ways to learn about the past form the clues it left behind. Camel on Your Knife It’s wasn’t so long ago that megafauna ruled the American continent. Sloths and wooly mammoths pushed their weight around; horses and camels had their day.
But after the end of the last Ice Age those animals disappeared, so when scientists turn up traces of those animals on archaeological remains, those remains go way back.
Dating methods in Archaeology. Are they accurate?
The method was developed by physicist Willard Libby at the University of Chicago who received the Nobel Prize for the discovery in The radioactive isotope 14C is created in the atmosphere by cosmic radiation and is taken up by plants and animals as long as they live. The C method cannot be used on material more than about 50, years old because of this short half-life.
Other isotopes are used by geologists to date older material. This number is called a standard deviation and is a measure of the spread of measurements around the mean average. Radiocarbon dating has had an enormous impact on archaeology around the world since it made it possible to date carbon and wood could be directly without dependence on characteristic artifacts or written historical records.
Nov 14, · methods for dating and interpreting artifacts. In this article, an overview is presented of the status of the radiocarbon dating of iron-based advances include simplification in sample preparation and reduction in sample size for accelerator mass spectrometry measurements, and the potential use of rust as a viable.
One path of wine history could follow the developments and science of grape growing and wine production; another might separately trace the spread of wine commerce through civilization, but there would be many crossovers and detours between them. However the time line is followed, clearly wine and history have greatly influenced one another.
Fossil vines, million-years-old, are the earliest scientific evidence of grapes. The earliest written account of viniculture is in the Old Testament of the Bible which tells us that Noah planted a vineyard and made wine. As cultivated fermentable crops, honey and grain are older than grapes, although neither mead nor beer has had anywhere near the social impact of wine over recorded time.
This Princess, having lost favor with the King, attempted to poison herself by eating some table grapes that had “spoiled” in a jar. She became intoxicated and giddy and fell asleep. When she awoke, she found the stresses that had made her life intolerable had dispersed. Returning to the source of her relief, her subsequent conduct changed so remarkably that she regained the King’s favor. He shared his daughter’s discovery with his court and decreed an increase in the production of “spoiled” grapes The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology has a web site covering the Origins and Ancient History of Wine with several very interesting and user-friendly articles about the discovery and science of wine’s social origin and development.
Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun’s Family
Resources Introduction Archaeology is the study of the ancient and recent human past through material remains. It is a subfield of anthropology, the study of all human culture. From million-year-old fossilized remains of our earliest human ancestors in Africa, to 20th century buildings in present-day New York City, archaeology analyzes the physical remains of the past in pursuit of a broad and comprehensive understanding of human culture.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural ology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is often.
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points.
Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate. However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old.
If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question. After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found.
I believe that there is a great need for this information to be made known, so I am making this article available in the hopes that it will enlighten others who are considering these questions. Even the creationist accounts that I have read do not adequately treat these issues. At the start, let me clarify that my main concern is not the age of the earth, the moon, or the solar system, but rather the age of life, that is, how long has life existed on earth.
Many dating methods seem to give about the same ages on meteorites. Thus radiometric dating methods appear to give evidence that the earth and meteorites are old, if one accepts the fact that decay rates have been constant.
Chronology and dating methods
We welcome each university to organize a group of students to study course packages in the beautiful campus of the University of British Columbia. Many course packages have a minimum and maximum class size, so we encourage you to register your students early. Course packages that do not have the minimum number of students will not be offered, but students may transfer to other packages. Courses do not receive UBC credit but credit may be granted by the student’s home university at its discretion.
Using their understanding of these concepts, chemical engineers re-organize and transform matter and energy to produce new substances and materials. From the pharmaceuticals we take when we are sick, to the fuel we put in our vehicles, to the plastics, alloys and polymers that we find in our homes, in our phones and virtually everywhere around us, chemical engineers are involved, always keeping economic and environmental sustainability in mind.
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History[ edit ] The museum of ancient times, such as the Museum of Alexandria , would be equivalent to a modern graduate institute. Early museums[ edit ] Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts. These were often displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities.
The oldest such museum in evidence was Ennigaldi-Nanna’s museum , dating from c. Public access to these museums was often possible for the “respectable”, especially to private art collections, but at the whim of the owner and his staff. One way that elite men during this time period gained a higher social status in the world of elites was by becoming a collector of these curious objects and displaying them.
How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?
READ MORE History of archaeology No doubt there have always been people who were interested in the material remains of the past, but archaeology as a discipline has its earliest origins in 15th- and 16th-century Europe , when the Renaissance Humanists looked back upon the glories of Greece and Rome. Popes, cardinals, and noblemen in Italy in the 16th century began to collect antiquities and to sponsor excavations to find more works of ancient art.
These collectors were imitated by others in northern Europe who were similarly interested in antique culture. All this activity, however, was still not archaeology in the strict sense. It was more like what would be called art collecting today. The Mediterranean and the Middle East Archaeology proper began with an interest in the Greeks and Romans and first developed in 18th-century Italy with the excavations of the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
His radiocarbon dating technique is the most important development in absolute dating in archaeology and remains the main tool for dating the past 50, years. How It Works: Carbon has 3 isotopic forms: Carbon, Carbon, and Carbon
Tool Journals, Newsletters, and Auction Listings Preface to the Collection The Davistown Museum exhibition An Archaeology of Tools interprets the European settlement of Maine and New England through the medium of hand tools, always for archaeologists among the most revealing of the accidental durable remnants of ancient peoples.
Occasionally, interspersed within the tool collections recovered by the Liberty Tool Co. The history of the Ancient Dominions of Maine is the history of two cultures, the Native Americans who lived in Maine before and the Europeans who gradually cleared the landscape of these first inhabitants after Historical Background The mission of The Davistown Museum exhibition An Archaeology of Tools is the recovery, identification, evaluation, and display of the hand tools of the maritime culture of coastal New England from the first European visitors in the 16th century to the fluorescence of the Industrial Revolution.
Particular emphasis is put on the display of hand tools characteristic of the maritime culture of Maine and New England, its shipbuilders and toolmakers, as well as the tools of the trades of the artisans of Davistown Plantation, later the towns of Montville and Liberty. The many villages and mill sites of the Davistown Plantation evolved into a flourishing community of coopers by the third decade of the 19th century.
These coopers, as well as other crafstmen and small manufacturer’s establishments and water mills, produced a wide variety of woodenware, wood products, such as clapboards and house frames, and some tools that were then transported to the market and shipbuilding towns of coastal Maine including Belfast, Thomaston, Warren, and Waldoboro.
The artifacts produced at mill sites such as Liberty, Kingdom Falls, South Liberty, Searsmont, Appleton, and Union played a key role in the evolution of the maritime culture of Maine including its Downeast cod fishery, West Indies and coasting trade, lime and granite industries, and flourishing lumber and cordwood exports. A study of the maritime history of Maine is incomplete without tracing the evolution of the infrastructure and industries that were the basis for its florescence from the end of the Indian Wars to the Industrial Revolution.
The tool collection of The Davistown Museum — An Archaeology of Tools — reflects the evolution of toolmaking from Maine’s first colonial dominion to the twilight years of its maritime culture during the late 19th century.
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Dating methods, such as radiocarbon dating, dendro-chronology or tree-ring dating, and potassium-argon dating, that may furnish an absolute date for an archaeological site, are a contribution of the physical and the natural sciences. But absolute dating methods are not always useful; the particular circumstances to which they apply do not exist at every site.
In such cases, archaeologists may employ relative dating techniques.
How do our methods for dating and interpreting artifacts impact our understanding of history and Western civilization? What are some examples of these methods? Draw a conclusion about how Egyptian culture and family life in the period of BC to BC compared to other civilizations emerging in the Middle East.
All courses, faculty listings, and curricular and degree requirements described herein are subject to change or deletion without notice. Courses For course descriptions not found in the UC San Diego General Catalog, —18, please contact the department for more information. Introduction to Sociology 4 An introduction to the organizing themes and ideas, empirical concerns, and analytical approaches of the discipline of sociology. The course focuses on both classical and contemporary views of modern society, on the nature of community, and on inequality, with special attention to class, race, and gender.
Materials include both theoretical statements and case studies. The focus here is on socialization processes, culture, social reproduction and social control, and collective action.